College Students, CRI, and Spiritual Struggles: Drilling down through the Sources

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The first set of sources in my Zotero library

Millennials’ involvement in church has been one motivating factor in my spiritual journeys research. When I came across an article titled “Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital: Race, Religion and Cross-racial Interaction for College Students” my interest was piqued. The title suggests that college students and their social interactions can benefit from an understanding of religious beliefs.

The article asserts that colleges have a responsibility to promote cross-racial interaction and cultivate an environment in which students from diverse backgrounds meaningfully engage with each other. The authors of the study recognize that structural, organizational, and social factors, i.e. religious affiliation, influence student interaction. Religion, interestingly, seems to be the most segregated aspect of American daily life both on and off campuses; Parks and Bowman cite research, particularly that of Bryant, that implies participation in religious communities has a negative relationship with diversity-related behaviors. Such organizations instead promote bonding of likeness. (Park & Bowman, 2015).

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The second set of sources in my Zotero library

Consequently, the goal of this quantitative survey study is to examine whether religious observance, religious world view, and participation in religious student organizations affects cross-racial interaction (CRI). This is significant because college tends to be first opportunity for  young adults to interact with and make connections between different racial/ethnic groups.

The study presented the following five hypotheses:

  1. Participation in campus religious groups is associated with lower CRI.
  2. Students attending a religious group with a majority of the same race would have lower CRI than groups with a more diverse majority.
  3. Students who identify as Muslim, Buddhist, Jewish, or Hindu (religious minorities) would have higher CRI than the Protestant reference group.
  4. Students with higher religiosity will have lower CRI.
  5. There will be a negative relationship between religious activity and white students (Park and Bowman, 2015).

The study found that students belonging to religious minorities all had higher CRIs than Protestants. The authors were surprised to find that significant effects between religious group participation and CRI were lacking. Instead, religion seems to make it easier for students to create bridges between students of different races (Park and Bowman, 2015).

Because this study seemed to reflect a positive conclusion in regard to millennials and religiosity, I chose to investigate more of Alyssa Bryant’s study, a study Park and Bowman seemed to use as a counterargument and jumping off point for their study.  I found “The Impact of Campus Context, College Encounters, and Religious/Spiritual Struggle on Ecumenical Worldview Development” through the university online database.

This quantitative study of 14,274 college students analyzes how students develop an ecumenical worldview.The study used a four page survey to examine the extent to which religious/spiritual struggles mediate the relationship between campus contexts/college encounters and worldview. The findings illustrate that college experiences bring students into contact with religion, spirituality, and diversity in classroom and co-curricular settings. More challenging experiences tend to provoke religious and spiritual struggles, and while the struggles “stimulate acceptance of, interest in, and understanding of others…,” the experiences may cause lower levels of psychological well-being, physical health, and self-esteem (Bryant, 2011).

While Bryant’s article illustrates what might help students of different backgrounds and religions relate while on campus, it doesn’t clearly define spiritual struggles. The term interests me so I went to the references page and found the following article: “A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students’ Spiritual Struggles.”

This qualitative research study expands upon a 2008 quantitative research study that identifies correlative factors of students’ spiritual struggles. This follow-up study used interviews, transcriptions, and journal reflections to define and classify the spiritual struggles of college students.

The study found that spiritual struggles of college students can be summarized in one word: CONTRAST. Bryant, Walker, and Luzader write, “At their core, spiritual struggles were steeped in the conflicting, contradictory, and paradoxical aspects of life….Spiritual struggles revolved around deeply felt dualities in the most fundamental aspects of the human experience.”  As the chart from page 60 of the study reveals, religious struggles of young twentysomethings arise out of questions sparked by new experiences or new interpretations of previous experiences.

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Millennials may be confused about church, but had I read the sources from bottom to top, instead of top to bottom, I would have recognized that positive experiences arise for this young generation out of religious questioning and exploration. Hope and faith may not be as lost as I had assumed they were. Faith, instead, is a starting point for relationships and connections as long as this generation stops being afraid to learn about it and discuss it.

References

Bryant, Alyssa N. “The Impact of Campus Context, College Encounters, and Religious/Spiritual Struggle on Ecumenical Worldview Development.” Research in Higher Education 52.5 (2011): 441–459. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.

Park, Julie J., and Nicholas A. Bowman. “Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital Race, Religion, and Cross-Racial Interaction for College Students.” Sociology of Education 88.1 (2015): 20–37. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant, Coretta Roseboro Walker, and Jordan Luzader. “A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students’ Spiritual Struggles.” 53.1 (2012): 55–75. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.

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Pre-Interview Planning: Online Interview 1

I will be interviewing Steven from Jakarta, Indonesia, through e-mail beginning Friday, March 27.

The Background

I met Steven through WordPress about three weeks ago. He commented on the blog post I wrote about Jefferson Bethke’s slam poem “Why I Hate Religion, but Love Jesus.” His comment focused on how Christians develop relationships with God, and it was the first comment I’d received from a reader outside of class. This piqued my interest, so I immediately went to his blog and started reading. Steven’s blog is subtitled “A vessel of honorable use,” which suggested to me that he was going to be focusing on serving God. I wondered how he hoped to do that, so I scrolled back through his posts and found his introductory post, in which he described how he wanted to try blogging to work through his revelations about God. He wrote that he had always done this in song form, and, because he enjoys writing, he felt he was ready and willing to try something new.

Steven’s blog has grown tremendously in the last few weeks. He has gone from writing brief posts to lengthy reflections on life and scripture. The development he shows in his writing suggests that his blogging is really having a positive effect on his spirituality, which is one topic I would like to focus on when I interview him. Brinkmann and Kvale in Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing suggest focusing the interview around particular themes rather than directive questions so that the interviewee can bring up what he or she finds important (34). I think this is a theme that would lend itself to a discussion about many significant details.

When Religious_map_of_IndonesiaI first reached out to Steven via e-mail, I was surprised to learn that he is only 17 years old and from a country that is predominantly Muslim. I feel as though it is rare to see someone so young so in touch with their faith and would also like to discover more about how a young man developed such a strong sense of self and faith this early in his life. Furthermore, I’d like to know a little bit about what it is like being a Christian in a predominantly Islamic nation. I am wondering if it develops a stronger sense of community among Christian believers or if it creates challenges in terms of worship. From what I read in his posts, it appears that worship music plays a significant role in his closeness with God. Therefore, this will also be something I hope to inquire more about through our interview process. I wrote two blog posts about worship music and Christian rock to develop a the background knowledge that would facilitate question development. Although Brinkmann and Kvale suggest that interviewers practice “deliberate naivete” or an openness to new and unexpected phenomena as opposed to “readymade categories and schemes of interpretation,” (33)  I wanted to have an understanding of the topic because I will have to form prepared questions and categories for analysis as I am not conducting an in-person, spoken interview.

The Method

I had originally hoped that Steven and I would be able to conduct an interview through interviewsSkype or G-chat because InterViews asserts that a research interview is a semistructured meeting that focuses on the subject’s experience of a theme (29). An online interview through a video-conferencing platform would have afforded the opportunity for conversation to flow naturally around several different topics. However, because of technological differences and a significant time zone difference, we will conduct our interview via e-mail. I do think, though, that because Steven is becoming an avid blogger about his faith that having him write his answers to e-mail questions might provide significant depth of knowledge and insight.

The only thing I will miss through e-mail is the embodied communiation that would come forth in an in-person interview. In InterViews, Brinkmann and Kvale write that “…bodies are never neutral but carry all their signs of gender, race, class, and so on…how people sit and comport themselves, how they smell and move, and how they are dressed…This may or may not affect the interaction…” (115) As a writer myself, I hope, though, that punctuation, writing voice, and style of the responses I’ll receive convey similar information.

The Questions

I plan on starting with ten questions, as pictured in the screenshot below. After I receive responses, I may feel compelled to ask more, and I am hoping that I will have the opportunity to send additional, follow-up questions via e-mail at that time.

Screenshot (45)