Millennials’ involvement in church has been one motivating factor in my spiritual journeys research. When I came across an article titled “Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital: Race, Religion and Cross-racial Interaction for College Students” my interest was piqued. The title suggests that college students and their social interactions can benefit from an understanding of religious beliefs.
The article asserts that colleges have a responsibility to promote cross-racial interaction and cultivate an environment in which students from diverse backgrounds meaningfully engage with each other. The authors of the study recognize that structural, organizational, and social factors, i.e. religious affiliation, influence student interaction. Religion, interestingly, seems to be the most segregated aspect of American daily life both on and off campuses; Parks and Bowman cite research, particularly that of Bryant, that implies participation in religious communities has a negative relationship with diversity-related behaviors. Such organizations instead promote bonding of likeness. (Park & Bowman, 2015).
Consequently, the goal of this quantitative survey study is to examine whether religious observance, religious world view, and participation in religious student organizations affects cross-racial interaction (CRI). This is significant because college tends to be first opportunity for young adults to interact with and make connections between different racial/ethnic groups.
The study presented the following five hypotheses:
- Participation in campus religious groups is associated with lower CRI.
- Students attending a religious group with a majority of the same race would have lower CRI than groups with a more diverse majority.
- Students who identify as Muslim, Buddhist, Jewish, or Hindu (religious minorities) would have higher CRI than the Protestant reference group.
- Students with higher religiosity will have lower CRI.
- There will be a negative relationship between religious activity and white students (Park and Bowman, 2015).
The study found that students belonging to religious minorities all had higher CRIs than Protestants. The authors were surprised to find that significant effects between religious group participation and CRI were lacking. Instead, religion seems to make it easier for students to create bridges between students of different races (Park and Bowman, 2015).
Because this study seemed to reflect a positive conclusion in regard to millennials and religiosity, I chose to investigate more of Alyssa Bryant’s study, a study Park and Bowman seemed to use as a counterargument and jumping off point for their study. I found “The Impact of Campus Context, College Encounters, and Religious/Spiritual Struggle on Ecumenical Worldview Development” through the university online database.
This quantitative study of 14,274 college students analyzes how students develop an ecumenical worldview.The study used a four page survey to examine the extent to which religious/spiritual struggles mediate the relationship between campus contexts/college encounters and worldview. The findings illustrate that college experiences bring students into contact with religion, spirituality, and diversity in classroom and co-curricular settings. More challenging experiences tend to provoke religious and spiritual struggles, and while the struggles “stimulate acceptance of, interest in, and understanding of others…,” the experiences may cause lower levels of psychological well-being, physical health, and self-esteem (Bryant, 2011).
While Bryant’s article illustrates what might help students of different backgrounds and religions relate while on campus, it doesn’t clearly define spiritual struggles. The term interests me so I went to the references page and found the following article: “A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students’ Spiritual Struggles.”
This qualitative research study expands upon a 2008 quantitative research study that identifies correlative factors of students’ spiritual struggles. This follow-up study used interviews, transcriptions, and journal reflections to define and classify the spiritual struggles of college students.
The study found that spiritual struggles of college students can be summarized in one word: CONTRAST. Bryant, Walker, and Luzader write, “At their core, spiritual struggles were steeped in the conflicting, contradictory, and paradoxical aspects of life….Spiritual struggles revolved around deeply felt dualities in the most fundamental aspects of the human experience.” As the chart from page 60 of the study reveals, religious struggles of young twentysomethings arise out of questions sparked by new experiences or new interpretations of previous experiences.
Millennials may be confused about church, but had I read the sources from bottom to top, instead of top to bottom, I would have recognized that positive experiences arise for this young generation out of religious questioning and exploration. Hope and faith may not be as lost as I had assumed they were. Faith, instead, is a starting point for relationships and connections as long as this generation stops being afraid to learn about it and discuss it.
Bryant, Alyssa N. “The Impact of Campus Context, College Encounters, and Religious/Spiritual Struggle on Ecumenical Worldview Development.” Research in Higher Education 52.5 (2011): 441–459. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.
Park, Julie J., and Nicholas A. Bowman. “Religion as Bridging or Bonding Social Capital Race, Religion, and Cross-Racial Interaction for College Students.” Sociology of Education 88.1 (2015): 20–37. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant, Coretta Roseboro Walker, and Jordan Luzader. “A Phenomenological Analysis of College Students’ Spiritual Struggles.” 53.1 (2012): 55–75. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.